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Method for rapid optimization of FEBID/FIBID processes


Localized conducting nanostructure fabrication by bottom-up approaches, such as focused electron or ion beam induced deposition (FEBID/ FIBID) or selective-area atomic layer deposition (SA-ALD), are more and more frequently used in different application fields. Researchers from the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main have developed a semi-automatic electrical conduction optimization process for these bottom-up techniques. The process is fully customizable, highly efficient and fast.


In FEBID and FIBID, as well as ALD, the electrical conductance of the growing nanostructures sensitively depends on the preparation conditions, as the residual content of organic fragments stemming from the commonly applied metal-organic precursors can vary strongly with variation of the growth parameters. In many applications, such as, e.g., contact lead fabrication to nanowires or the deposition of metallic ferromagnetic nanostructures, high electrical conductivity and fast throughput in the fabrication process are essential. The selection of electron or ion beam scanning parameters, to give but one example, strongly determines the local growth rate and the deposits’ overall metal content. These parameters typically vary strongly between different precursors and therefore have to be determined for each individual precursor in a time-consuming series of experiments. Several weeks of optimization may be required for a given precursor, if one relies on the traditional approach of deposition, followed by conductance measurements, repeated many times over until the optimized parameters are identified. The present invention allows for the determination of these optimal parameters for FEBID/FIBID processes within a few hours.

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The present method improves FEBID/FIBID or similar processes by monitoring a target quantity, e.g., the electrical conductivity of the deposited structures, via in-situ measurement of its value and adaption of the process towards optimization of the quantity. This is realized by means of a genetic algorithm that takes the specifics of the FEBID/FIBID (or similar) processes into account. By means of a newly developed program, the optimum process parameters, such as, e.g., the electron or ion beam dwell time of a raster scan, which defines the shape of the conducting nanostructure, or the distance of the raster points (pitch) can be determined. Additional process parameters, such as refresh time and also beam voltage or current, can be included in the optimization cycle. By employing the genetic algorithm, FEBID/FIBID processes with established as well as newly developed precursors can be strongly improved. By using the algorithm, the FEBID/FIBID process adjustment time is reduced significantly. As a recent application example we mention the transition temperatures of direct-write superconductors which correlate strongly with the sample conductivity.


  • Fast optimization of FEBID/FIBID processes for conducting nanostructure fabrication
  • Integration into existing SEM systems or dedicated FEBID/FIBID systems due to easy adaption of software and hardware
  • Can be adopted to other in-situ measurable quantities, such as optical (e.g., reflectivity) or magnetic


  • Fabrication of conducting nanostructures by FEBID/FIBID, ALD and related techniques
  • Optimization of metal content in bottom-up fabrication techniques for conducting nanostructures


The technologies can be licensed or assigned. Moreover, collaborations regarding further development are welcome.

INNOVECTIS Gesellschaft für Innovations-Dienstleistungen mbH

Kirstin Schilling
Altenhöferallee 3
60438 Frankfurt




  • DE 10 2013 004 116.3 anhängig
  • PCT WO 2014 135283 anhängig
  • EP 2964804 anhängig
  • US 2016017496 anhängig
  • KR 20160030075 anhängig
  • JP 2016516889 anhängig


Nanostructure Fabrication, FEBID/FIBID Process

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